IV.C. Measurement: Assessment and Metrics

1. Basic statistical use
Use techniques such as the goal-question-metric (GQM) model and others to identify when, what, and how to measure projects and processes. Describe how metrics and data gathering methods affect resources and vice-versa. (Apply)

2. Sampling
Define and describe basic sampling techniques such as random and stratified. Identify when and why sampling is an appropriate technique to use. (Understand)

3. Statistical analysis
Calculate basic statistics: measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode), and measures of dispersion (range, standard deviation, and variance). Identify basic distribution types (normal, bimodal, skewed) and evaluate run charts, statistical process control (SPC) reports, and other control charts to make data-based decisions. (Evaluate)

4. Measurement systems analysis
Define basic measurement terms: accuracy, precision, bias, and linearity. Understand the difference between repeatability and reproducibility in gauge R&R studies. (Understand)

5. Trend and pattern analysis
Interpret data graphs and charts to identify cyclical, seasonal, and environmental trends. Evaluate control chart patterns to determine process shifts. (Evaluate)

6. Process variation
Analyze data to distinguish between common and special cause variation. (Analyze)

7. Process capability
Recognize process capability (Cp and Cpk,) and performance indices (Pp and Ppk). (Understand)

8. Reliability terminology
Recognize reliability measures such as mean time between failures (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR). (Understand)

9. Qualitative assessment
Identify subjective measures such as verbatim comments from customers, observation records, and focus group output. Describe how they differ from objective measures, and determine when measurements should be captured in categories rather than numeric value. (Analyze)

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