IV.A. Problem-Solving Tools

1. The seven classic quality tools
Select, interpret, and evaluate output from these tools: Pareto charts, cause and effect diagrams, flowcharts, control charts, check sheets, scatter diagrams, and histograms. (Evaluate)

2. Basic management and planning tools
Select, interpret, and evaluate output from these tools: affinity diagrams, tree diagrams, process decision program charts (PDPCs), matrix diagrams, prioritization matrices, interrelationship digraphs, activity network diagrams, and Gantt charts. (Evaluate)

3. Process improvement tools
Select, interpret and apply tools such as root cause analysis, PDCA, six sigma DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control), and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). (Evaluate)

4. Innovation and creativity tools
Use various techniques and exercises for creative decision-making and problem-solving, including brainstorming, mind mapping, lateral thinking, critical thinking, 5 whys and design for six sigma (DFSS). (Apply)

5. Cost of quality (COQ)
Define and distinguish between prevention, appraisal, internal, and external failure cost categories and evaluate the impact that changes in one category will have on the others. (Evaluate)

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